APPROVED by Decree
of the President of the Russian Federation
No. 229, March 31, 2023
of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation
I. General provisions
1. This Concept is a strategic planning document which provides a systemic vision of the national interests of the Russian Federation in the domain of foreign policy, basic principles, strategic goals, major objectives and priority areas of the Russian foreign policy.
2. The Concept is based on the Constitution of the Russian Federation, generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation, federal laws, other statutes and regulations of the Russian Federation governing foreign policy activities of the federal authorities.
3. The Concept specifies certain provisions of the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation and takes into account basic provisions of other strategic planning documents pertaining to international relations.
4. More than a thousand years of independent statehood, the cultural heritage of the preceding era, deep historical ties with the traditional European culture and other Eurasian cultures, and the ability to ensure harmonious coexistence of different peoples, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups on one common territory, which has been developed over many centuries, determine Russia’s special position as a unique country-civilization and a vast Eurasian and Euro-Pacific power that brings together the Russian people and other peoples belonging to the cultural and civilizational community of the Russian world.
5. Russia’s place in the world is determined by its significant resources in all areas of living, its status of a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, participant in the leading intergovernmental organizations and associations, one of the two largest nuclear powers, and the successor (continuing legal personality) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Russia, taking into account its decisive contribution to the victory in World War II and its active role in shaping the contemporary system of international relations and eliminating the global system of colonialism, is one of the sovereign centres of global development performing a historically unique mission aimed at maintaining global balance of power and building a multipolar international system, as well as ensuring conditions for the peaceful progressive development of humanity on the basis of a unifying and constructive agenda.
6. Russia pursues an independent and multi-vector foreign policy driven by its national interests and the awareness of its special responsibility for maintaining peace and security at the global and regional levels. Russian foreign policy is peaceful, open, predictable, consistent, and pragmatic and is based on the respect for universally recognized principles and norms of international law and the desire for equitable international cooperation in order to solve common problems and promote common interests. Russia’s attitude towards other states and interstate associations is contingent on the constructive, neutral or unfriendly character of their policies with respect to the Russian Federation.
II. Today’s world: major trends and prospects for development
7. Humanity is currently going through revolutionary changes. The formation of a more equitable multipolar world order is underway. The imbalanced model of world development which has for centuries ensured the advanced economic growth of colonial powers through the appropriation of resources of dependent territories and states in Asia, Africa and in the Occident is irrevocably fading into the past. The sovereignty and competitive opportunities of non-Western world powers and regional leading countries are being strengthened. Structural transformation of the world economy, its transfer to a new technological basis (including the introduction of artificial intelligence technologies, the latest information and communication, energy, biological technologies and nanotechnologies), the growth of national consciousness, cultural and civilizational diversity and other objective factors accelerate the process of shifting the development potential to new centres of economic growth and geopolitical influence and promote the democratization of international relations.
8. The changes which are now taking place and which are generally favourable are nonetheless not welcomed by a number of states being used to the logic of global dominance and neocolonialism. These countries refuse to recognize the realities of a multipolar world and to agree on the parameters and principles of the world order accordingly. Attempts are made to restrain the natural course of history, to eliminate competitors in the politico-military and economic spheres, and to suppress dissent. A wide range of illegal instruments and methods is being used, including the introduction of coercive measures (sanctions) in circumvention of the UN Security Council, provocation of coups d’état and military conflicts, threats, blackmailing, manipulation of the consciousness of certain social groups and entire nations, offensive and subversive actions in the information space. A wide-spread form of interference in the internal affairs of sovereign states has become the imposition of destructive neoliberal ideological attitudes that run counter to traditional spiritual and moral values. As a result, the destructive effect extends to all spheres of international relations.
9. Serious pressure is being put on the UN and other multilateral institutions the intended purpose of which, as platforms for harmonizing the interests of the leading powers, is artificially devalued. The international legal system is put to the test: a small group of states is trying to replace it with the concept of a rules-based world order (imposition of rules, standards and norms that have been developed without equitable participation of all interested states). It becomes more difficult to develop collective responses to transnational challenges and threats, such as the illicit arms trade, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, dangerous pathogens and infectious diseases, the use of information and communication technologies for illicit purposes, international terrorism, illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, transnational organized crime and corruption, natural and man-made disasters, illegal migration, environmental degradation. The culture of dialogue in international affairs is degrading, and the effectiveness of diplomacy as a means of peaceful dispute settlement is decreasing. There is an acute lack of trust and predictability in international affairs.
10. The crisis of economic globalization is deepening. Current problems, including in the energy market and in the financial sector, are caused by degradation of many previous development models and instruments, irresponsible macroeconomic solutions (including uncontrolled emission and accumulation of unsecured debts), illegal unilateral restrictive measures and unfair competition. The abuse by certain states of their dominant position in some spheres intensifies the processes of fragmentation of the global economy and increases disparity in the development of states. New national and trans-border payment systems are becoming widespread, there is a growing interest in new international reserve currencies, and prerequisites for diversifying international economic cooperation mechanisms are being created.
11. The role of the power factor in international relations is increasing, conflict areas are expanding in a number of strategically important regions. Destabilizing build-up and modernization of offensive military capabilities and the destruction of the arms control treaty system are undermining strategic stability. The use of military force in violation of international law, the exploration of outer space and information space as new spheres of military action, the blurring of the line between military and non-military means of inter-state confrontation, and the escalation of protracted armed conflicts in a number of regions increase the threat to global security, enhance the risk of collision between major states, including with the participation of nuclear powers, and the probability of such conflicts escalating and growing into a local, regional or global war.
12. A logical response to the crisis of the world order is the strengthening of cooperation between the states that are subject to external pressure. The formation of regional and trans-regional mechanisms of economic integration and interaction in various spheres and the creation of multi-format partnerships to solve common problems are being intensified. Other steps (including unilateral ones) are also being taken to protect the vital national interests. High level of interdependences, global reach and transnational nature of challenges and threats limit the ability of individual states, military-political and trade and economic alliances to ensure security, stability and prosperity. Effective solutions to the numerous problems of our time and peaceful progressive development of large and small nations and humanity as a whole can be achieved only through combining the potential of good faith efforts of the entire international community on the basis of the balance of power and interests.
13. Considering the strengthening of Russia as one of the leading centres of development in the modern world and its independent foreign policy as a threat to Western hegemony, the United States of America (USA) and their satellites used the measures taken by the Russian Federation as regards Ukraine to protect its vital interests as a pretext to aggravate the longstanding anti-Russian policy and unleashed a new type of hybrid war. It is aimed at weakening Russia in every possible way, including at undermining its constructive civilizational role, power, economic and technological capabilities, limiting its sovereignty in foreign and domestic policy, violating its territorial integrity. This Western policy has become comprehensive and is now enshrined at the doctrinal level. This was not the choice of the Russian Federation. Russia does not consider itself to be an enemy of the West, is not isolating itself from the West and has no hostile intentions with regard to it; Russia hopes that in future the states belonging to the Western community will realize that their policy of confrontation and hegemonic ambitions lack prospects, will take into account the complex realities of a multipolar world and will resume pragmatic cooperation with Russia being guided by the principles of sovereign equality and respect for each other’s interests. The Russian Federation is ready for dialogue and cooperation on such a basis.
14. In response to unfriendly actions of the West, Russia intends to defend its right to existence and freedom of development using all means available. The Russian Federation will concentrate its creative energy on the geographic vectors of its foreign policy which have obvious prospects in terms of expanding mutually beneficial international cooperation. The majority of humanity is interested in having constructive relations with Russia and in strengthening Russia’s positions on the international scene as an influential global power making a decisive contribution to maintaining global security and ensuring peaceful development of states. This opens up a wide range of opportunities for the successful activity of the Russian Federation on the international scene.
III. National interests of the Russian Federation in the foreign policy domain, strategic goals and key tasks set by the foreign policy of the Russian Federation
15. In view of the long-term trends in the world development, the national interests of the Russian Federation in the foreign policy domain are as follows:
1) to protect the constitutional system, sovereignty, independence, state and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation against any destructive external influence;
2) to maintain strategic stability, strengthen international peace and security;
3) to strengthen the legal foundations of international relations;
4) to protect the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens, and to protect Russian entities against foreign illegal encroachment;
5) to develop safe information space, protect Russian society against destructive informational and psychological influence;
6) to preserve the Russian nation, build human capital, and improve the quality of life and well-being of citizens;
7) to promote sustainable development of Russian economy on a new technological basis;
8) to promote traditional Russian moral and spiritual values, preserve cultural and historical heritage of the multi-ethnic people of the Russian Federation;
9) to ensure environmental protection, conservation of natural resources and environmental management, and adapt to climate change.
16. Building on its national interests and strategic national priorities, the Russian Federation focuses its foreign policy activities on achieving the following goals:
1) to ensure security of the Russian Federation, its sovereignty in all domains, and territorial integrity;
2) to create favourable external environment for sustainable development of Russia;
3) to consolidate Russia’s position as one of the responsible, powerful and independent centres of the modern world.
17. Strategic foreign policy goals of the Russian Federation are achieved through performing the following main tasks:
1) to shape an equitable and sustainable world order;
2) to maintain international peace and security, strategic stability, ensure peaceful coexistence and progressive development of states and peoples;
3) to assist in developing effective comprehensive responses by the international community to common challenges and threats, including regional conflicts and crises;
4) to promote mutually beneficial and equal cooperation with all foreign states and their associations adopting a constructive stance, and mainstream Russian interests through mechanisms of multilateral diplomacy;
5) to counter anti-Russian activities carried out by foreign states and their associations, and create conditions conducive to stopping such activities;
6) to establish good neighbourly relations with contiguous states, and contribute to the prevention and elimination of tensions and conflicts in their territories;
7) to provide assistance to Russian allies and partners in promoting shared interests, ensuring their security and sustainable development, irrespective of whether or not the allies and partners receive international recognition or membership of international organizations;
8) to unlock and strengthen the capacity of multilateral regional associations and integration structures with Russia’s participation;
9) to consolidate Russia’s position in the world economy, achieve national development goals for the Russian Federation, ensure economic security, and realize its economic potential;
10) to ensure Russia’s interests in the world’s oceans, space and airspace;
11) to ensure that Russia is perceived abroad objectively, consolidate its position in the international information space;
12) to enhance Russia’s role in the global humanitarian space, consolidate the position of the Russian language in the world, and contribute to the preservation abroad of historical truth and the memory of Russia’s role in world history;
13) to protect abroad, in a comprehensive and effective way, the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens and entities;
14) to develop ties with compatriots living abroad and render them full support in exercising their rights, ensuring protection of their interests and preserving all-Russian cultural identity.
IV. Foreign policy priorities of the Russian Federation
Establishment of an equitable and sustainable world order
18. Russia is striving towards a system of international relations that would guarantee reliable security, preservation of its cultural and civilizational identity, and equal opportunities for the development for all states, regardless of their geographical location, size of territory, demographic, resource and military capacity, or political, economic and social structure. In order to meet these criteria, the system of international relations should be multipolar and based on the following principles:
1) sovereign equality of states, respect for their right to choose models of development, and social, political and economic order;
2) rejection of hegemony in international affairs;
3) cooperation based on a balance of interests and mutual benefit;
4) non-interference in internal affairs;
5) rule of international law in regulating international relations, with all states abandoning the policy of double standards;
6) indivisibility of security in global and regional aspects;
7) diversity of cultures, civilizations and models of social organization, non-imposition on other countries by all states of their models of development, ideology and values, and reliance on a spiritual and moral guideline that is common for all world traditional religions and secular ethical systems;
8) responsible leadership on the part of leading nations aimed at ensuring stable and favourable conditions of development, both for themselves and for all other countries and peoples;
9) the primary role of sovereign states in decision-making regarding the maintenance of international peace and security.
19. In order to help adapt the world order to the realities of a multipolar world, the Russian Federation intends to make it a priority to:
1) eliminate the vestiges of domination by the US and other unfriendly states in global affairs, create conditions to enable any state to renounce neo-colonial or hegemonic ambitions;
2) improve international mechanisms for ensuring security and development at the global and regional levels;
3) restore the UN’s role as the central coordinating mechanism in reconciling the interests of UN Member States and their actions in pursuit of the goals of the UN Charter;
4) enhance the capacity and international role of the interstate association of BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), the RIC (Russia, India, China) and other interstate associations and international organizations, as well as mechanisms with strong Russian participation;
5) support regional and sub-regional integration within friendly multilateral institutions, dialogue platforms and regional associations in Asia Pacific, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East;
6) enhance sustainability and progressive development of the international legal system;
7) ensure equitable access for all states to the benefits of the global economy and division of labour at the international level, as well as to modern technology in the interest of fair and even development (including addressing global energy and food security);
8) intensify cooperation in all areas with Russia’s allies and partners, and suppress the attempts by unfriendly states to obstruct such cooperation;
9) consolidate international efforts to ensure respect for and protection of universal and traditional spiritual and moral values (including ethical norms common to all world religions), and counter the attempts to impose pseudo-humanistic or other neo-liberal ideological views, leading to the loss by the humankind of traditional spiritual and moral values and integrity;
10) promote constructive dialogue, partnerships, and cross-fertilization of various cultures, religions and civilizations.
Rule of Law in International Relations
20. Ensuring the rule of law in international relations serves as one of the foundations of a just and sustainable world order, maintenance of global stability, peaceful and fruitful cooperation between states and their associations, and a factor in easing international tensions and increasing the predictability of world development.
21. Russia consistently advocates strengthening the legal fundamentals of international relations, and faithfully complies with its international legal obligations. At the same time, decisions of interstate bodies adopted on the basis of provisions of international treaties of the Russian Federation which collide with the Constitution may not be executed in the Russian Federation.
22. The mechanism for shaping universal international legal standards should be based on the free will of sovereign states, and the UN should remain the main venue for progressive development and codification of international law. Further promotion of the concept of a rules-based world order is fraught with the destruction of the international legal system and other dangerous consequences for humanity.
23. In the interests of increasing sustainability of the international legal system, preventing its fragmentation or decay, and avoiding indiscriminate use of generally recognized norms of international law, the Russian Federation intends to make it a priority to:
1) counter the attempts to replace, revise or interpret in an arbitrary way the principles of international law enshrined in the UN Charter and Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, as of 24 October 1970;
2) progressively develop, including given the realities of a multipolar world, and codify international law, primarily within the efforts taken under the aegis of the United Nations, as well as ensure participation of the maximum possible number of states in the UN international treaties, and universal interpretation and application thereof;
3) consolidate the efforts taken by states that advocate restoration of universal respect for international law and enhancement of its role as the basis of international relations;
4) exclude from international relations the practice of taking illegal unilateral coercive measures in violation of the UN Charter;
5) improve the mechanism for applying international sanctions, based on the exclusive competence of the UN Security Council to impose such measures and the need to ensure their effectiveness in maintaining international peace and security and preventing a deterioration of the humanitarian situation;
6) step up the process of international and legal formulation of the state border of the Russian Federation and its maritime boundaries, within which it exercises its sovereign rights and jurisdiction, based on the necessity of providing unconditional support for its national interests, and importance to strengthen good neighbourly relations, confidence and cooperation with contiguous states.
Strengthening international peace and security
24. The Russian Federation proceeds from the indivisibility of international security (in global and regional aspects) and seeks to ensure it equally for all states on the basis of the principle of reciprocity. On this basis, Russia is open to joint actions together with all interested states and interstate associations to shape a renewed, more stable international security architecture. In order to maintain and strengthen international peace and security, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:
1) using peaceful means, primarily diplomacy, negotiations, consultations, mediation and good offices, to resolve international disputes and conflicts, settle them on the basis of mutual respect, compromises and a balance of legitimate interests;
2) establishing broad cooperation in order to neutralize the attempts by any states and interstate associations to seek global dominance in the military sphere, project their power beyond their area of responsibility, assume primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security, draw dividing lines and ensure the security of some states to the detriment of legitimate interests of other countries. Such attempts are incompatible with the spirit, purposes and principles of the UN Charter and pose a threat of regional conflicts and a world war to the present and future generations;
3) building up political and diplomatic efforts aimed at preventing the use of military force in violation of the UN Charter, primarily attempts to bypass the prerogatives of the UN Security Council and violate the conditions of use of the inalienable right to self-defense guaranteed by Article 51 of the UN Charter;
4) adopting political and diplomatic measures to counter interference with the internal affairs of sovereign states, primarily aimed at complicating the domestic political situation, unconstitutional regime change or violation of the territorial integrity of states;
5) ensuring strategic stability, eliminating the prerequisites for unleashing a global war, risks of using nuclear and other types of weapons of mass destruction, shaping a renewed international security architecture, preventing and resolving international and internal armed conflicts, addressing transnational challenges and threats in certain areas of international security.
25. The Russian Federation proceeds from the premise that its Armed Forces can be used in accordance with the generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation and legislation of the Russian Federation. Russia considers Article 51 of the UN Charter as an adequate and not to be revised legal basis for the use of force in self-defence. The use of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation can address, in particular, the tasks of repelling and preventing an armed attack on Russia and (or) its allies, resolving crises, maintaining (restoring) peace as commissioned by the UN Security Council or other collective security structures with the participation of Russia in their area of responsibility, protecting their citizens abroad, combating international terrorism and piracy.
26. In the event of unfriendly acts by foreign states or their associations threatening the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation, including those involving restrictive measures (sanctions) of a political or economic nature or the use of modern information and communication technologies, the Russian Federation considers it lawful to take the symmetrical and asymmetrical measures necessary to suppress such unfriendly acts and also to prevent them from recurring in future.
27. In order to ensure strategic stability, eliminate the prerequisites for unleashing a global war and risks of using nuclear and other types of weapons of mass destruction, and shaping a renewed international security architecture, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:
1) strategic deterrence, preventing the aggravation of interstate relations to a level capable of provoking military conflicts, including with the use of nuclear and other types of weapons of mass destruction;
2) strengthening and developing the system of international treaties in the areas of strategic stability, arms control, prevention of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery, and related goods and technologies (also mindful of the risk of such weapons’ components falling into the hands of non-state actors);
3) strengthening and developing international political foundations (arrangements) for maintaining strategic stability, regimes of arms control and non-proliferation of all types of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, with mandatory comprehensive and coherent consideration of all types of weapons and factors affecting strategic stability;
4) preventing an arms race and precluding its transfer to new environments, creating conditions for further phased reduction of nuclear potentials, taking into account all the factors affecting strategic stability;
5) increasing predictability in international relations, implementing and, as necessary, improving confidence-building measures in the military and international spheres, and preventing unintentional armed incidents;
6) implementing security guarantees in respect of states parties to regional treaties on nuclear-weapon-free zones;
7) conventional arms control, combating illicit small arms and light weapons traffic;
8) strengthening nuclear safety and security at the global level and preventing acts of nuclear terrorism;
9) developing cooperation in the field of the peaceful uses of atomic energy to meet the needs of all interested states in fuel and energy, taking into account the right of each state to independently determine its national policy in this area;
10) strengthening the role of multilateral export control mechanisms in the areas of ensuring international security and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, opposing transformation of these mechanisms into a tool of unilateral restrictions that impede the implementation of legitimate international cooperation.
28. In order to strengthen regional security, prevent local and regional wars, and settle internal armed conflicts (primarily on the territories of neighbouring states), the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:
1) adopting political and diplomatic measures to prevent emerging threats or reduce the level of threats to Russia’s security from neighbouring territories and states;
2) supporting allies and partners in ensuring defence and security, suppressing attempts of external interference with their internal affairs;
3) developing military, military-political and military-technical cooperation with allies and partners;
4) assistance in the creation and improvement of mechanisms for ensuring regional security and settling crises in regions important to Russia’s interests;
5) Russia’s enhanced role in peacekeeping activities (including within cooperation with the UN, regional international organizations and parties to conflicts), strengthened peacekeeping and anti-crisis potential of the UN and the CSTO.
29. In order to prevent the rise of biological threats and ensure biological safety, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) investigating cases of alleged development, deployment and use of biological and toxin weapons, primarily in the territories of neighbouring states;
2) preventing terrorist acts and (or) sabotage committed with the use of dangerous pathogens and mitigation of consequences of such acts and (or) sabotage;
3) enhancing cooperation with allies and partners in the field of biological security, primarily with the CSTO and CIS member states.
30. In order to ensure international information security, counter threats against it, and strengthen Russian sovereignty in the global cyberspace, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:
1) strengthening and improving the international legal regime for preventing and resolving interstate conflicts and regulating activities in the global cyberspace;
2) shaping and improving an international legal framework for countering criminal uses of information and communication technologies;
3) ensuring the safe and stable Internet operation and development based on the equitable participation of states in the management of this network and precluding foreign control over its national segments;
4) adopting political, diplomatic and other measures aimed at countering the policy of unfriendly states to weaponize the global cyberspace, use information and communication technologies to interfere with the internal affairs of states for military purposes, as well as limit the access of other states to advanced information and communication technologies and increase their technological dependence.
31. In order to eradicate international terrorism and protect the state and Russian citizens from terrorist acts, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:
1) increased efficiency and coordination of multilateral cooperation in the anti-terrorist field, including within the UN framework;
2) strengthening the decisive role of states and their competent authorities in the fight against terrorism and extremism;
3) adopting political, diplomatic and other measures aimed at countering the use by states of terrorist and extremist (including neo-Nazi) organizations as a foreign and domestic policy tool;
4) combating the spread of terrorist and extremist ideology (including neo-Nazism and radical nationalism), in particular on the Internet;
5) identifying individuals and organizations involved in terrorist activities and suppressing channels for terrorist financing;
6) identifying and eliminating international legal regulation gaps related to cooperation in the field of anti-terrorism, in particular taking into account the risks of terrorist attacks with the use of chemical biological agents;
7) enhancing multifaceted cooperation with allies and partners in the field of anti-terrorism, providing them with practical assistance in counter-terrorism operations, including for the protection of Christians in the Middle East.
32. For the purpose of combatting the illicit traffic in, and consumption of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances that pose a serious threat to the international and national security, citizens’ health and moral and spiritual foundations of the Russian society, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) enhancing the international cooperation with a view of avoiding the weakening or revision of the current global drug control regime (including the legalization thereof for non-medical purposes) as well as counteracting other initiatives that may entail the increase in the illicit drug trafficking and consumption;
2) rendering practical assistance to the allies and partners in carrying out anti-drug activities.
33. For the purpose of combating the transnational organized crime and corruption that cause a growing threat to the security and sustainable development of Russia, its allies and partners, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to enhancing the international cooperation with the goal of eliminating the safe havens for criminals and strengthening multilateral mechanisms that accord with the national interests of Russia.
34. For the purpose of reducing, in the territory of the Russian Federation, the risks that arise from the natural and man-made disasters occurring beyond it and enhancing the robustness of foreign countries against them, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) strengthening the organizational and legal framework and improving the mechanisms for bilateral and multilateral interaction in the area of the protection of population from natural and man-made emergencies, building capacity for early warning and forecasting of such emergencies, and overcoming their consequences;
2) providing the practical assistance to foreign states in the area of protection from natural and man-made emergencies, including the use of unique Russian technologies and experience in emergency response.
35. For the purpose of combating the illegal migration and improving the international migrations regulation, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to strengthening the interaction in this area with the CIS member states that pursue a constructive policy towards the Russian Federation.
Ensuring the interests of the Russian Federation
in the World Ocean, outer space and airspace
36. For the purpose of studying, exploring and using the World Ocean with a view of ensuring the security and development of Russia, counteracting unilateral restrictive measures on behalf of the unfriendly states and their associations towards Russian marine activities, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) ensuring a secure free, safe and comprehensive access of Russia to vital, essential and other environments, transport communications and resources of the World Ocean;
2) responsible and efficient exploration of biological, mineral, energy and other resources of the World Ocean, development of marine pipeline systems, conduct of scientific research, protection and preservation of the marine environment;
3) consolidating on the external borders of the continental shelf of the Russian Federation in accordance with the international law and protecting its sovereign rights on the continental shelf.
37. For the purpose of peaceful study and uses of outer space, consolidation of its leadership positions on the space goods, works and services markets, reinforcement of its status as one of the leading space powers, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) promoting the international cooperation with a view of preventing an arms race in outer space, primarily by developing and concluding a relevant international treaty, and, as an intermediary step, by all states parties undertaking not to be the first to place weapons in outer space;
2) geographic diversification of the international cooperation in the sphere of outer space.
38. For the purpose of using the international airspace in the interests of the security and development of Russia, counteracting the unilateral restrictive measures on behalf of the unfriendly countries and their associations towards Russian aircraft, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) ensuring a secure access of Russia to the international (open) airspace taking into account the principle of freedom of flights;
2) geographic diversification of the international flight routes for the Russian aircraft and development of cooperation in the sphere of aerial transportation, protection and use of airspace with the states that pursue a constructive policy towards Russia.
International economic cooperation and support
of international development
39. For the purpose of ensuring the economic security, economic sovereignty, sustainable economic growth, structural and technological renewal, improving the international competitiveness of the national economy, preserving the leading positions of Russia in the world economy, reducing risks and capturing opportunities arising from the deep changes in the world economy and international relations as well as based on unfriendly actions by foreign states and their associations, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) accommodating the world trade and monetary and financial systems taking into account the realities of the multipolar world and consequences of the crisis of economic globalization, first and foremost with a view of narrowing the possibilities for the unfriendly states to excessively use their monopolistic or dominant stand in certain spheres of the world economy, and enhancing the participation of the developing countries in the global economic management;
2) reducing the dependence of the Russian economy on the unfriendly actions of foreign states, primarily by developing a de-politicized, safe, independent from the unfriendly states international payment infrastructure and enlarging the use of national currencies in payments with the allies and partners;
3) enhancing the Russian presence on the world markets, increasing the non-resource based, non-energy export; to the geographic diversification of economic ties in order to re-direct them to the states that pursue a constructive and neutral policy towards the Russian Federation, while remaining to be open to the pragmatic cooperation with the business circles of the unfriendly states;
4) improving the conditions for Russia to access the world markets; protecting the Russian organizations, investments, goods and services beyond the country from discrimination, unfair competition, attempts of the foreign states to unilaterally regulate the world markets that are key for the Russian export;
5) protecting the Russian economy and international trade and economic ties from unfriendly actions of foreign states by applying special economic measures in response to such actions;
6) facilitating the attraction to Russia of foreign investments, advance knowledge and technologies and high-quality specialists;
7) promoting the processes of regional and interregional economic integration that serve Russia’s interests, first of all, within the Union State, EAEU, CIS, SCO, BRICS as well as with a view of shaping the Greater Eurasian Partnership;
8) capitalizing on the unique geographical position and transit capacity of Russia to advance the national economy and strengthen the transport and infrastructure connectivity in Eurasia.
40. For the purpose of enhancing the robustness of the system of international relations against crises, improving the social and economic as well as humanitarian situations in the world, relieving the consequences of the military conflicts, implementing the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, promoting a positive attitude toward Russia in the world, the Russian Federation intends to promote the international development while giving priority to the social and economic development of the Republic of Abkhazia, the Republic of South Ossetia, EAEU member states, CIS member states that support good-neighbour relations with Russia as well as developing states that pursue a constructive policy towards the Russian Federation.
Environmental protection and global health
41. For the purpose of preserving the favourable environment, improving of its quality, and intelligently adapt Russia to the climate changes in the interests of modern and future generations, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) promoting the scientifically sound, non-politicized international efforts to limit the negative impacts on the environment (including greenhouse gas emission reduction), maintaining and enhancing the absorbent capabilities of ecosystems;
2) expanding cooperation with the allies and partners with a view to counteracting the politicization of the international nature-oriented and climate activity, primarily its implementation with a goal of unfair competition, interference in the internal affairs of states and limitation of the states’ sovereignty in connection with their natural resources;
3) maintaining the right of every state to choose for itself the best suitable mechanisms and methods of environmental protection and adaptation to climate change;
4) facilitating the elaboration of uniform, understandable and global rules of environmental climate regulation taking into account the Paris Climate Agreement of 12 December 2015, adopted within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change dated 9 May 1992;
5) increasing the efficiency of the international cooperation in the area of development and introduction of the state-of-the-art technologies that would enable the preservation of favourable environment and its improved quality as well as adaptation of the states to the climate change;
6) preventing the transborder damaging of the environment of the Russian Federation, primarily the transmission to its territory across its border of the contaminating agents (including radioactive substances), quarantine, highly hazardous and dangerous crop pests, anti-crop agents, undesirable plants and micro-agents.
42. For the purpose of protecting health and ensuring the social welfare of the people of Russia and other states, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) increasing efficiency of the international cooperation in the area of healthcare and preventing its politicization, including within international organizations;
2) consolidating international efforts in order to prevent the extension of dangerous infectious diseases, timely and efficiently respond to sanitary and epidemiological emergencies, combat chronic non-contagious diseases, overcome social and economic consequences of pandemics and epidemics;
3) increasing efficiency of international scientific research in healthcare, primarily aimed at developing and introducing new means of prevention, diagnostics and treatment of diseases.
International humanitarian cooperation
43. For the purpose of strengthening the role of Russia in the world humanitarian space, shaping a positive attitude thereto abroad, enhancing the positions of the Russian language in the world, counteracting the Russophobia campaign led by the unfriendly foreign states and their associations as well as enhancing mutual understanding and confidence among states, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) raising awareness and protecting against discrimination outside the country of the national developments in the sphere of culture, sciences and arts as well as strengthening the image of Russia as a state attractive for life, work, education and tourism;
2) promoting the Russian language and strengthening its status as a language of international communication, one of the official UN languages and of several other international organizations; promoting its learning and use abroad (primarily in the CIS member states); preserving and strengthening the role of the Russian language in inter-ethnic and inter-state communication, including within international organizations; protecting the Russian language from discrimination abroad;
3) developing mechanisms of public diplomacy with the participation of representatives and institutions of civil society with a constructive attitude towards Russia, as well as political scientists, representatives of the expert and scientific community, youth, volunteer, search and other social movements;
4) promoting the development of international relations between religious organizations belonging to Russia’s traditional religions, and protecting the Russian Orthodox Church from discrimination abroad, including in the interests of ensuring the unity of Orthodoxy;
5) assisting in the creation of a single humanitarian space of the Russian Federation and the CIS member states, preserving centuries-old civilizational and spiritual ties between the people of Russia and the peoples of these states;
6) ensuring guaranteed free access for Russian athletes and sports organizations to international sports activities, facilitating their depoliticization, improving the work of international sports intergovernmental and public organizations, and developing new formats for international sports cooperation with states pursuing a constructive policy towards Russia.
44. With the purpose of countering the falsification of history, incitement of hatred against Russia, spread of the ideology of neo-Nazism, racial and national exclusivity, and aggressive nationalism, and strengthening the moral, legal and institutional foundations of contemporary international relations based primarily on the universally recognized outcomes of World War II, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) disseminating accurate information abroad about the role and place of Russia in world history and the formation of a just world order, including the decisive contribution of the Soviet Union to the victory over Nazi Germany and to the founding of the UN, its extensive assistance in decolonization and the formation of statehood of the peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America;
2) taking both within relevant international platforms and at the level of bilateral relations with foreign partners the necessary measures to counteract the distortion of information about significant events in world history relating to Russian interests, including the suppression of crimes, the rehabilitation and glorification of German Nazis, Japanese militarists and their collaborators;
3) taking response measures against foreign states and their associations, foreign officials, organizations and citizens involved in committing unfriendly acts against Russian sites of historical and memorial significance located abroad;
4) promoting constructive international cooperation to preserve historical and cultural heritage.
Protection of Russian citizens and organizations
from foreign unlawful infringements, support for compatriots
living abroad, international cooperation in the field of human rights
45. With the of protecting the rights, freedoms and lawful interests of Russian citizens (including minors), Russian organizations from foreign unlawful infringements, and countering the campaign of Russophobia unleashed by unfriendly states, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) monitoring of unfriendly actions against Russian citizens and organizations, such as the use of restrictive measures (sanctions) of a political or economic nature, unfounded legal prosecution, the commission of crimes, discrimination, incitement to hatred;
2) taking enforcement actions and special economic measures against foreign states and their associations, foreign officials, organizations and citizens involved in committing unfriendly acts against Russian citizens and organizations and in violating the fundamental rights and freedoms of compatriots living abroad;
3) enhancing the effectiveness of global, regional and bilateral mechanisms for the international protection of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens and the protection of Russian organizations, as well as developing new mechanisms in this area, where necessary.
46. With a view to developing ties with compatriots living abroad and providing them with comprehensive support (given their significant contribution to the preservation and dissemination of the Russian language and Russian culture) in connection with their systematic discrimination in several states, the Russian Federation, as the core of the civilizational community of the Russian world, intends to give priority to:
1) promoting the consolidation of compatriots living abroad who have a constructive attitude towards Russia and supporting them in protecting their rights and legitimate interests in their states of residence, primarily in hostile states, in preserving their all-Russian cultural and linguistic identity, Russian spiritual and moral values, and their ties with their historic Motherland;
2) assisting voluntary resettlement of compatriots who have a constructive attitude towards Russia, especially those who suffer discrimination in their states of residence, in the Russian Federation.
47. Russia recognizes and guarantees human and civil rights and freedoms in accordance with generally recognized principles and rules of international law, and considers the renunciation of hypocrisy and faithful implementation by states of their obligations in this area to be a condition for the progressive and harmonious development of mankind. With the purpose of promoting respect for and observance of human rights and freedoms in the world, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) ensuring that the interests of Russia and its national, social, cultural, spiritual, moral, and historical characteristics are taken into account when strengthening international legal regulations and international mechanisms in the area of human rights;
2) monitoring and making public the real situation regarding the observance of human rights and freedoms in the world, primarily in states claiming their exclusive position in human rights issues and in setting international standards in this area;
3) eradicating double standards policies in international human rights cooperation, and making it non-politicized, equitable and mutually respectful;
4) countering the use of human rights issues as a tool for external pressure, interference in the internal affairs of states and destructive influence on the activities of international organizations;
5) taking action against foreign states and their associations, foreign officials, organizations, and citizens involved in violations of fundamental human rights and freedoms.
Information support for the foreign policy of the Russian Federation
48. With the purpose of forming an objective perception of Russia abroad, strengthening its position in the global information space, countering the coordinated anti-Russian propaganda campaign carried out on a systematic basis by unfriendly states and involving disinformation, defamation and incitement to hatred, and ensuring free access of the population of foreign states to accurate information, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) making truthful information about the Russian Federation’s foreign and domestic policies, its history and achievements in various spheres of life, and other accurate information about Russia available to the widest possible foreign audience;
2) facilitating the dissemination of information abroad to promote international peace and understanding, develop and establish friendly relations between states, strengthen traditional spiritual and moral values as a unifying principle for all mankind, and enhance Russia’s role in the global humanitarian space;
3) ensuring protection from discrimination abroad and assisting in strengthening the position of Russian information and communications media, including domestic digital information platforms, in the global information space, as well as constructively-minded media of compatriots living abroad towards Russia;
4) improving the tools and methods of information support for the foreign policy activities of the Russian Federation, including more effective use of modern information and communication technologies, including social networks;
5) improving international mechanisms and norms of regulation and protection of information and communication media, for ensuring free access to them and creating and disseminating information;
6) creating an enabling environment for foreign media to operate in Russia on the basis of reciprocity;
7) the further formation of a common information space of the Russian Federation and the CIS member states, increasing cooperation in the information sphere by states pursuing a constructive policy towards Russia.
V. Regional tracks of the foreign policy
of the Russian Federation
49. The most important for the security, stability, territorial integrity and social and economic development of Russia, strengthening its position as one of the influential sovereign centres of world development and civilization is to ensure sustainable long-term good-neighbourly relations and to combine the strengths in various fields with the CIS member states, which are connected with Russia by centuries-old traditions of joint statehood, deep interdependence in various fields, a common language and close cultures. With the purpose of further transformation of the near abroad into a zone of peace, good neighbourliness, sustainable development and prosperity, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:
1) preventing and resolving armed conflicts, improving inter-state relations, and ensuring stability in the near abroad, including preventing the instigation of “colour revolutions” and other attempts to interfere in the internal affairs of Russia’s allies and partners;
2) ensuring guaranteed protection of Russia, its allies and partners under any military and political scenario in the world, strengthening the system of regional security based on the principle of indivisibility of security and Russia’s key role in maintaining and strengthening regional security, the complementarity of the Union State, the CSTO and other formats of interaction between Russia and its allies and partners in the defence and security sphere;
3) countering deployment or reinforcement of military infrastructure of unfriendly states and other threats to Russia’s security in the near abroad;
4) deepening integration processes, which serve Russia’s interests, and strategic cooperation with the Republic of Belarus, strengthening the mutually beneficial comprehensive cooperation system based on combined CIS and EAEU potentials, as well as developing additional multilateral formats, including a mechanism for interaction between Russia and the states of the Central Asian region;
5) establishing an integrated economic and political space in Eurasia in the long term;
6) preventing and countering unfriendly actions of foreign states and their alliances, which provoke disintegration processes in the near abroad and create obstacles to the exercise of the sovereign right of Russia’s allies and partners to deepen their comprehensive cooperation with Russia;
7) unleashing the economic potential of good-neighbourliness, primarily with the EAEU member states and states interested in developing economic relations with Russia in order to form a broader integration contour in Eurasia;
8) comprehensively supporting the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia, promoting the voluntary choice, based on international law, of the peoples of these states in favor of a deeper integration with Russia;
9) strengthening cooperation in the Caspian Sea zone, proceeding from the premise that the solution of all issues relating to this region falls within the exclusive competence of the five Caspian states.
50. Russia is seeking to preserve peace and stability, enhance environmental sustainability, reduce threats to national security in the Arctic, create favourable international conditions for the social and economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (including to protect the original habitat and traditional livelihood of the indigenous people living there), as well as to advance the Northern Sea Route as a competitive national transport corridor making possible its international use for transportations between Europe and Asia. In pursuing these aims, the Russian Federation is going to focus on:
1) peacefully resolving international issues, related to the Arctic, proceeding from the premise of the special responsibility of the Arctic states for the sustainable development of the region and the sufficiency of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea dated 10 December 1982 for regulating interstate relations in the Arctic Ocean (including protecting the marine environment and delimitating maritime areas);
2) counteracting the unfriendly states’ policy aimed at militarization of the region and limiting Russia’s ability to exercise its sovereign rights in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation;
3) ensuring the unalterability of the historically established international legal regime of the inland maritime waters of the Russian Federation;
4) establishing a mutually beneficial cooperation with the non Arctic states pursuing a constructive policy toward Russia and interested in international activities in the Arctic, including developing infrastructure of the Northern Sea Route.
The People’s Republic of China, the Republic of India
51. A comprehensive deepening of ties and enhancement of coordination with friendly sovereign global centres of power and development, which are located on the Eurasian continent and committed to approaches which coincide in principle with the Russian approaches to a future world order and solutions for key problems of the world politics, is particularly important for achieving strategic goals and major objectives of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation.
52. Russia aims at further strengthening the comprehensive partnership and the strategic cooperation with the People’s Republic of China and focuses on the development of a mutually beneficial cooperation in all areas, provision of mutual assistance, and enhancement of coordination in the international arena to ensure security, stability and sustainable development at the global and regional levels, both in Eurasia and in other parts of the world.
53. Russia will continue to build up a particularly privileged strategic partnership with the Republic of India with a view to enhance and expand cooperation in all areas on a mutually beneficial basis and place special emphasis on increasing the volume of bilateral trade, strengthening investment and technological ties, and ensuring their resistance to destructive actions of unfriendly states and their alliances.
54. Russia seeks to transform Eurasia into a continental common space of peace, stability, mutual trust, development and prosperity. Achieving this goal implies:
1) comprehensive strengthening of the SCO’s potential and role in ensuring security in Eurasia and promoting its sustainable development by enhancing the Organization’s activities in the light of current geopolitical realities;
2) establishment of the broad Greater Eurasian Partnership integration contour by combining the potential of all the states, regional organizations and Eurasian associations, based on the EAEU, the SCO and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as well as the conjunction of the EAEU development plans and the Chinese initiative “One Belt One Road” while preserving the possibility for all the interested states and multilateral associations of the Eurasian continent to participate in this partnership and – as a result – establishment of a network of partner organizations in Eurasia;
3) strengthening of the economic and transport interconnectivity in Eurasia, including through the modernization and increased capacity of the Baikal-Amur Mainline and the Trans-Siberian railway; the rapid launch of the International North – South Transport Corridor; improvement of infrastructure of the Western Europe – Western China International Transit Corridor, the Caspian and the Black Sea regions, and the Northern Sea Route; creation of development zones and economic corridors in Eurasia, including the China – Mongolia – Russia economic corridor, as well as increased regional cooperation in digital development and establishment of an energy partnership.
4) comprehensive settlement in Afghanistan, assistance in building it as a sovereign, peaceful and neutral State with stable economy and political system which meets the interests of all the ethnic groups living there and opens up prospects for integrating Afghanistan into the Eurasian space for cooperation.
The Asia-Pacific region
55. Given the dynamically growing multifaceted potential of the Asia-Pacific region, the Russian Federation is going to focus on:
1) increasing economic, security, humanitarian and other cooperation with the states of the region and the ASEAN member states;
2) establishing a comprehensive, open, indivisible, transparent, multilateral and equitable architecture of security and mutually beneficial cooperation in the region based on a collective and non-aligned approaches as well as unleashing the region’s potential aiming at the establishment of a Great Eurasian Partnership;
3) promoting constructive non-politicized dialog and interstate cooperation in various areas, including with the help of opportunities provided by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum;
4) countering attempts to undermine the regional system of multilateral security and development alliances on the basis of ASEAN, which rests upon the principles of consensus and equality of its participants;
5) developing a broad international cooperation to counter policies aimed at drawing dividing lines in the region.
The Islamic world
56. The states of friendly Islamic civilization, which has great prospects for establishing itself as an independent centre of world development within a polycentric world, are increasingly in demand and more reliable partners of Russia in ensuring security and stability as well as in solving economic problems at the global and regional levels. Russia seeks to strengthen the comprehensive mutually beneficial cooperation with the Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, respecting their social and political systems and traditional spiritual and moral values. In pursuing these aims, the Russian Federation is going to focus on:
1) developing the full-scale and trustful cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Iran, providing comprehensive support for the Syrian Arab Republic, and deepening the multifaceted mutually beneficial partnerships with the Republic of Türkiye, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Arab Republic of Egypt and the other Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, given the extent of their sovereignty and constructiveness of their policy toward the Russian Federation;
2) establishing a sustainable comprehensive regional security and cooperation architecture in the Middle East and North Africa, based on combining the capacities of all the states and interstate alliances of the regions, including the League of Arab States and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Russia intends to actively cooperate with all the interested states and interstate associations in order to implement the Russia’s Collective Security Concept for the Persian Gulf Region, viewing the implementation of this initiative as an important step toward a sustainable and comprehensive normalization of the situation in the Middle East;
3) promoting interfaith and intercultural dialog and understanding, consolidating efforts to protect traditional spiritual and moral values, and combating Islamophobia, including via the Organization of Islamic Cooperation;
4) reconciling differences and normalizing relations among the Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, as well as between these states and their neighbours (primarily the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Arab countries, the Syrian Arab Republic and its neighbours, the Arab countries and the State of Israel), including within the efforts aimed at a comprehensive and lasting solution to the Palestinian question;
5) helping resolve and overcome consequences of armed conflicts in the Middle East, North Africa, South, Southeast Asia and other regions where Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation are located;
6) unleashing the economic potential of the Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation with a view to establishing the Greater Eurasian Partnership.
57. Russia stands in solidarity with the African states in their desire for a more equitable polycentric world and elimination of social and economic inequality, which is growing due to the sophisticated neo-colonial policies of some developed states towards Africa. The Russian Federation intends to support further the establishment of Africa as a distinctive and influential centre of world development, giving priority to:
1) supporting the sovereignty and independence of interested African states, including through security assistance, inter alia food and energy security, as well as military and military-technical cooperation;
2) assistance in resolving and overcoming the consequences of armed conflicts in Africa, especially inter-ethnic and ethnic ones, advocating the leading role of African states in these efforts, based on the principle “African problems – African solution”;
3) strengthening and deepening Russian-African cooperation in various spheres on a bilateral and multilateral basis, primarily within the framework of the African Union and the Russia-Africa Partnership Forum;
4) increasing trade and investment with African states and African integration structures (primarily the African Continental Free Trade Area, the African Export-Import Bank and other leading subregional organizations), including through the EAEU;
5) promoting and developing links in the humanitarian sphere, including scientific cooperation, training of national personnel, strengthening health systems, providing other assistance, promoting intercultural dialogue, protecting traditional spiritual and moral values, and the right to freedom of religion.
Latin America and the Caribbean
58. Given the progressive strengthening of the sovereignty and multifaceted potential of Latin American and Caribbean states, the Russian Federation intends to develop relations with them on a pragmatic, de ideologized and mutually beneficial basis, giving priority attention to:
1) supporting interested Latin American states under pressure from the United States and its allies in securing sovereignty and independence, including through the promotion and expansion of security, military and military-technical cooperation;
2) strengthening friendship, mutual understanding and deepening multifaceted mutually beneficial partnership with the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Republic of Cuba, the Republic of Nicaragua, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, developing relations with other Latin American states, taking into account the degree of independence and constructiveness of their policy towards the Russian Federation;
3) increasing mutual trade and investment with Latin American and Caribbean States, including through cooperation with the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Common Market of the South, the Central American Integration System, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of the Americas, the Pacific Alliance, and the Caribbean Community;
4) expanding cultural, scientific, educational, sports, tourism and other humanitarian ties with the states of the region.
59. Most European states pursue an aggressive policy toward Russia aimed at creating threats to the security and sovereignty of the Russian Federation, gaining unilateral economic advantages, undermining domestic political stability and eroding traditional Russian spiritual and moral values, and creating obstacles to Russia’s cooperation with allies and partners. In this connection, the Russian Federation intends to consistently defend its national interests by giving priority attention to:
1) reducing and neutralizing threats to security, territorial integrity, sovereignty, traditional spiritual and moral values, and socio-economic development of Russia, its allies and partners from unfriendly European states, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the European Union and the Council of Europe;
2) creating conditions for the cessation of unfriendly actions by European states and their associations, for a complete rejection of the anti Russian course (including interference in Russia’s internal affairs) by these states and their associations, and for their transition to a long-term policy of good-neighbourliness and mutually beneficial cooperation with Russia;
3) the formation of a new model of coexistence by European states to ensure the safe, sovereign and progressive development of Russia, its allies and partners, and durable peace in the European part of Eurasia, taking into account the potential of multilateral formats, including the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
60. Objective prerequisites for the formation of a new model of coexistence with European states are geographical proximity, historically developed deep cultural, humanitarian and economic ties of the peoples and states of the European part of Eurasia. The main factor complicating the normalization of relations between Russia and European states is the strategic course of the USA and their individual allies to draw and deepen dividing lines in the European region in order to weaken and undermine the competitiveness of the economies of Russia and European states, as well as to limit the sovereignty of European states and ensure US global domination.
61. The realization by the states of Europe that there is no alternative to peaceful coexistence and mutually beneficial equal cooperation with Russia, an increase in the level of their foreign policy independence and a transition to a policy of good neighbourliness with the Russian Federation will have a positive effect on the security and welfare of the European region and help European states take their proper place in the Greater Eurasian Partnership and in a multipolar world.
The U.S. and other Anglo-Saxon states
62. Russia’s course towards the U.S. has a combined character, taking into account the role of this state as one of the influential sovereign centres of world development and at the same time the main inspirer, organizer and executor of the aggressive anti-Russian policy of the collective West, the source of major risks to the security of the Russian Federation, international peace, a balanced, equitable and progressive development of humanity.
63. The Russian Federation is interested in maintaining strategic parity, peaceful coexistence with the United States, and the establishment of a balance of interests between Russia and the United States, taking into account their status as major nuclear powers and special responsibility for strategic stability and international security in general. The prospects of forming such a model of U.S.-Russian relations depend on the extent to which the United States is ready to abandon its policy of power-domination and revise its anti-Russian course in favour of interaction with Russia on the basis of the principles of sovereign equality, mutual benefit, and respect for each other’s interests.
64. The Russian Federation intends to build relations with other Anglo-Saxon states depending on the degree of their willingness to abandon their unfriendly course toward Russia and to respect its legitimate interests.
65. Russia is interested in preserving Antarctica as a demilitarized space of peace, stability and cooperation, maintaining environmental sustainability and expanding its presence in the region. For these purposes, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to preservation, effective implementation and progressive development of the Antarctic Treaty System of December 1, 1959.
VI. Formation and implementation of foreign policy
of the Russian Federation
66. The President of the Russian Federation, acting in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws, defines the main lines of the foreign policy, directs the county’s foreign policy and, as the head of State, represents the Russian Federation in international relations.
67. The Council of the Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, within the scope of their authority, shape the legislative framework for the foreign policy and implementation of international obligations of the Russian Federation, as well as contribute to the fulfilment of the tasks of parliamentary diplomacy.
68. The Government of the Russian Federation takes measures to implement foreign policy and international cooperation.
69. The State Council of the Russian Federation participates in the development of strategic tasks and goals of the foreign policy, assists the President of the Russian Federation in determining main directions of the foreign policy.
70. The Security Council of the Russian Federation defines main directions of the foreign and military policy, forecasts, identifies, analyses and assesses threats to Russia’s national security, develops measures to neutralize them, prepares proposals for the President of the Russian Federation regarding the adoption of special economic measures with a view to ensuring national security, examines issues of international cooperation related to maintaining security, coordinates efforts by federal executive bodies and executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation to implement decisions adopted by the President of the Russian Federation with a view to ensuring national interests and national security, protecting the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, its independence and state integrity, preventing external threats to national security.
71. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation develops a general strategy of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation and presents relevant proposals to the President of the Russian Federation, implements the foreign policy course, coordinates the activities of federal executive bodies in the area of international relations and international cooperation, and coordinates international relations of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
72. The Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs, Compatriots Living Abroad, and International Humanitarian Cooperation assists the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation in pursuing a uniform foreign policy line in terms of coordinating and implementing programmes on international humanitarian cooperation, as well as in the implementation of state policy in the field of international development assistance at the bilateral level.
73. Other federal executive bodies carry out international activities in accordance with their powers, the principle of foreign policy integrity and in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.
74. The constituent entities of the Russian Federation engage in international and foreign economic contacts in accordance with their powers and in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, taking into account the important role of inter-regional and trans-border cooperation in the development of relations between the Russian Federation and foreign states.
75. When preparing and implementing foreign policy decisions, the federal executive bodies work with the chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, Russian political parties, the Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation, non-profit organizations, expert and academic community, cultural and humanitarian associations, the Russian Orthodox Church and other traditional Russian religious associations, business circles and mass media, contributing to their participation in international cooperation. The broad involvement of constructive social forces in the foreign policy process promotes national consensus on foreign policy, assists in its implementation, and plays an important role in terms of more effective resolution of a wide range of issues on the international agenda.
76. Extra-budgetary resources raised on a voluntary basis through public-private partnership can be used to finance foreign policy activities.